The challenges of medical negligence from a legal viewpoint

Since the dawn of the 90’s and till nowadays the majority of representatives of medical specialties and insurance companies have repeatedly stated that healthcare enters a crisis as for medical malpractice lawsuits, as evidenced by the sharply increased amount of compensations awarded by the court, and the price of insurance policies at various levels. Thus, according to, a prominent provider of legal services, running a huge database of medical negligence solicitors, the country’s budget expenditures associated with medical negligence account for £790ml. annually.

As a result, even some US states have enacted laws that restrict the amount of claims, compensations for lawyers and limitation periods within which the victims of negligence are entitled to sue the defendant. In addition, some states a mandatory insurance of doctors was introduced, as well as the established the procedure for the consideration of claims in arbitration before a claim can be submitted to the jury. Furthermore, the reduction of the compensation amount for ‘physical pain and suffering’ are actively discussed. It should be noted that certain proposals for reform in the area of medical malpractice lawsuits are usually discussed during the pre-election political campaigns in the aspects of the desire of gaining votes, and the current presidential election campaign.

Neither legislators nor the medical staff nor the patients have no doubt that the issues arising in connection with the resolution of medical malpractice disputes, are the most sophisticated in the law enforcement practice. This is because on the one hand the complicated nature of medicine and absolute uniqueness of each contentious case, and on the other hand the insufficiency of regulatory guidelines for medical practice. Taking into account the specificity of medical practice, it is virtually impossible to reflect all the standards in the acts of the legislative level. It is impossible to imagine a detailed description of medical procedures in the text of the law the area is so complicated and diverse that the mission seems to be impossible to implement.

Therefore, some other than the ‘technical’ level solution is required, some regulation on the sub-legal level. In other branches of human activity, for example in international trade or maritime transport, in the absence of legal regulation (i.e. rules, writing laid down by law) the terms have been developed for centuries in business practices that made up the unresolved legal niche. Despite the unwritten nature of these practices, they are the rules of law. In medicine, the role of such customs, ‘technology’ regulators, should be carried out by methodical recommendations, national standards, forms of diagnosis and treatment.

International experience suggests that standardisation of medical practice is not only giving real help to the courts in resolving medical malpractice disputes, but also provides an effective impact on the quality of medical care in the country, regardless of the legal status of standards and forms, different from country to country (they can be either mandatory or advisory).

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The stages of acquiring property in the UK: the underwater payment rocks

After the purchase transaction is complete, you will need to pay the state a fee as payment of expenses related to the acquisition. Now the legislation set the bar at a rate of 4 per cent of the transaction amount. You do not need to understand all of the transactions and other legal tricky cases, all of this is the prerogative of the agent or any other person who may be your confidant, plus the validity of the amount is verified by conveyance solicitors. If you are working with an agent you will have to pay up to 5 percent of the total cost of the purchased object, while conveyance solicitors, whose participation in the deal is obligatory, are typically paid up to 0.5% of the purchase. The cost of the premises is fixed in the contract, and the payment obligations of the seller and the buyer are listed there.

In order to take the construction of the house on their own land, it is necessary to communicate with the local authorities. Once administration gives go-ahead for the start of construction, you will need to draft a future housing, and then send it to the Ministry of Environment.

All in all, you can hardly call the pricing policy for the property in the UK to be democratic. In the center of London to purchase a one-room you will need around £1ml. The further you go from center, the lower the prices will be, but no less than £220,000 according to the offers as of March, 2016. In other localities, e.g. Liverpool or Manchester Greater area the prices are way more moderate – this is where 1 bedroom apartments start from as low as £70,000.

Before the acquisition of the object it is necessary to hire professionals that conduct an inspection of the premises and the adjoined buildings. At the end of this procedure you will receive a formal opinion, in which the state property will indicate that you need to repair and how much it will cost. For this paper, you will need to shell out up to several thousands pounds (although it doesn’t apply to the brand-new property of the higher price segment, that typically come fully furnished). This conclusion is then required for the registration of the mortgage, because the bank will need to make sure that the value of the object actually corresponds to its real condition.

The next step is a contract. It is notarised and sold under the close supervision of lawyers. After the transaction, your lawyer will ask you to provide all the necessary documentation; plus you may be asked to confirm the nature of the funds you are using to acquire the property. Then, in order to become full owner of the object, you will need to register all the documents at the Land Registry; and once this procedure is completed, you can consider yourself to be the landowner.

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